This website was designed to help teachers create cooperative learning with the 6 elements of positive interdependence, individual accountability, group processing, social skills, face-to-face interactions & specific task strategies and graphic organizers are provided to help with each of the elements. Cooperative learning or positive interdependence page content cooperative learning refers to a set of instructional strategies which include cooperative student-student interaction over subject matter as an integral part of the process. Positive interdependence promotes a cooperative and caring learning community in which students work together, are supportive, and encourage each other to learn and succeed negative interdependence creates an unfriendly, competitive, or even hostile learning environment in which classmates are at odds with each other. The review of the literature strongly suggests that the positive effects of cooperative learning found at the primary and secondary level cannot readily be expected to transfer to higher educa- tion.
Cooperative learning is a method of teaching and learning in which students form teams for structured activities to achieve a common goal they are individually accountable for their work, and the work of the entire group. Cooperative learning 265 processing positive interdependence refers to each group member learning to de- pend on the rest of the group while working together to complete the task. Positive interdependence is the belief by each individual that there is value in working with other students and that both individual learning and work products will be better as a result of collaboration.
Positive interdependence is the heart of collaborative activities that define collabo-ration and transform group work into teamwork it is a key feature that has been em- well as one’s own and is the heart of cooperative learning if there is no positive in-terdependence, there is no cooperation [13. Cooperative learning involves more than students working together on a lab or field project it requires teachers to structure cooperative interdependence among the students these structures involve five key elements which can be implemented in a variety of ways there are also different types of cooperative groups appropriate for different situations. To help you understand cooperative learning a little better, here are some ideas and activities that could help team members develop better skills in each of the areas listed above ways to ensure positive interdependence. Positive interdependence a childhood example is the three-legged race though smaller than the typical learning groups, it illustrates clearly the dependence each teammate has with the other individual.
The essential components of cooperative learning are the following: positive interdependence (each student's success is tied to the success of the group) face-to-face interaction (student interactions promote each other's success) individual and group accountability. Additional examples of ways to structure informal group work are given in the table below formal cooperative learning groups in formal cooperative learning students work together for one or more class periods to complete a joint task or assignment (johnson et al, 2014. Examples element positive interdependence example of strategy shared grades individual accountability face to face promotive interaction social skills training group.
31 positive interdependence 32 collaborative (social) skills cooperative in nature and which will enable students to spend more time on task than is possible with more traditional teaching techniques because student achievement is usually correlated with of cooperative learning are: 31 positive interdependence. Teachers may structure positive interdependence by establishing mutual goals (learn and make sure all other group members learn), joint rewards (if all group members achieve above the criteria, each will receive bonus points), shared resources (one paper for each group or each member receives part of the required information), and assigned. An overview of cooperative learning roger t and david w johnson without the cooperation of its members society cannot survive, and the society of man has survived there are a number of ways of structuring positive interdependence within a learning group.
Positive interdependence is the first essential element of cooperative learning learning situations are not cooperative if students are arranged into groups without positive interdependence (johnson & johnson, 2009. In cooperative learning: theory, research, and practice (2d ed, 1995), robert slavin describes the cooperative-learning techniques that he favors, analyzes the research evidence that supports their use, and provides detailed directions on how to use them.
Positive interdependence team members must rely on one another to accomplish goal 2 cooperative base groups groups stay together to provide mutual academic and personal support, possibly for several years implementing cooperative learning positive interdependence. Positive interdependence is the heart of cooperative learning the second essential component of cooperative learning is promotive interaction , preferably face-to-face once teachers establish positive interdependence, they need to maximize the opportunity for students to promote each other's success by helping, assisting, supporting. In formal cooperative learning groups, positive interdependence may by structured by asking group members to (1) agree on an answer for the group (group product--goal interdependence), (2) making sure each member can explain the groups' answer (learning goal.